However, the findings of Hallinan and Teixiera 1987b qualify this finding with classroom size; diversity is most effective in fostering cross-race friendships in small classrooms. Participants assigned more blame to the batterer when the batterer and victim constituted an interracial couple. Recommendations for Clinical Practice Acknowledging that clients themselves bring particular expectations and biases, personality traits, cultural histories, etc. In order for environments with high proportions of cross-race others to facilitate interracial friendships, there must not be an ample population of potential same-race friends. The published version is available at. Cross-racial, cross-cultural appointments have a greater chance to work when the.
The authors conclude that neither the desire for out-group qualities nor the possession of attributes supposedly more attractive to other groups serve as bases for whether or not people will choose to date interracially. These findings imply that African-American females in interracial relationships may be most at risk for not receiving the legal and social services they need. One line crossed the other. Through exposure to other races comes more expertise and the ability to recognize facial features more quickly. An underlying assumption of these studies was that members of ethnic minorities are constantly surrounded with more cross- than same-race others.
. The authors conclude there is no evidence of relationships dysfunctionality for cross-race couples. However, both African-American and Caucasian students with cross-race friends had higher educational aspirations and outcomes. Hallinan and Teixeira examined structural and social factors that increased the likelihood of cross-race friendships among school children. Racial identity attitudes derived from W. In 14 of 16 cases, participants described expressing disagreement or dissatisfaction with their therapist in either indirect or direct ways.
Reconceptualizing multicultural counseling: Universal healing conditions in a culturally specific context. Internalized racial oppression, the ways in which a member of a target group is in relationship with the dominant group's ideology and the extent to which they accept their subordinate status as deserved, natural, and inevitable, has in particular been understudied and inconsistently defined. Such conversations may also help to minimize the power differential that is particularly pronounced in dyads involving a majority group therapist and a minority group client. These results imply that cross-race friendship can be viewed as a function of number of opportunities for cross-race or same-race relationships. A meta-analytic review of racial-ethnic matching for African American and Caucasian American clients and clinicians. Over 89% of respondents rated common interests, physical attractiveness independent of race , and common entertainment interests as very important or important in spouse selection.
This uncertainty as to its status as a legitimate attribute worthy of study is in part because of its history but also because of its inherent nature as a construct. Whereas unsatisfied clients tended to emphasize their perception of cultural distance, two-thirds of satisfied clients identified with their therapist in some important way. And without intimacy, we have no reason to feel comfortable. Research on psychotherapy with culturally diverse populations. The therapeutic alliance rupture as a transtheoretical phenomenon: Definitional and conceptual issues.
Seventy-five percent of the participants who expressed this view were from the satisfied group, whereas only 25% were from the unsatisfied group. Journal of Education Research, 74, 388-393. The case for cultural competency in psychotherapeutic interventions. Self-Disclosure Therapist disclosed personal information to the client Typical Variant D. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. Journal of Psychology, 129, 349-351. Furthermore, as with all human perception, the clients we interviewed were susceptible to biases in recall and limitations in their ability to describe complex experience.
Glenn Loury's new foreword revisits the basic logic behind race-sensitive policies, asserting that since individuals use race to conceptualize themselves, we must be conscious of race as we try to create rules for a just society. These findings support the contention that cross-race friendship is a key factor in reducing intergroup prejudice, mistrust, and discrimination. Seven out of 8 satisfied cases reported the use of therapist self-disclosure compared to only two out of the 8 unsatisfied cases. These stories are useful to understand what microaggressions and microaffirmations are, how they are perpetrated, and how they impact the target and can hopefully lead to efforts to minimize microaggressions and maximize microaffirmations. In addition, when controlling for age and sex, there were no significant differences in relational capital defined as the characteristics one can offer in a relationship between individuals who are or are not open to interracial dating. Self-disclosure Therapist self-disclosure was another discriminating feature associated with treatment satisfaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 16, 639-657.
Of the 4 types of attitudes measured preencounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, and internalization , preencounter attitudes were most strongly associated with a preference for White counselors and a nonacceptance of Black counselors. Third, there was a strong relationship between therapist self-disclosure of personal history and treatment satisfaction. It has not been subjected to the final copyediting, fact-checking, and proofreading required for formal publication. The results indicate that there are generalizable racial identity profiles in the Black population. Seven participants 44% discussed their presenting problems in the context of racial or cultural issues.
This chapter synthesizes the ongoing empirical research on the educational impact of racially and ethnically diverse university environments in a U. However, eight of the 13 were unable to be reached despite repeated attempts. Nigrescence theory was conceptualized in the context of discrimination in a country where individuals of African descent are a minority, whereas Jamaica is a country that is more than 90% Black. In contrast, the majority of unsatisfied participants reported that their concerns were not satisfactorily addressed despite their efforts to communicate their needs. Interpersonal biases and interracial distrust.