What is the Origin of the Creed? However, the arguments put forward by Jeremias did not seem conclusive. In fact, one would be hard pressed to understand what it refers to simply by this sole reference in I Corinthians 15:5. In Galatians, Paul must deal with those who would return to fleshy self-reliance by means of a beguiling gospel of works. It refers to some incidents which are not mentioned in the Gospels. Posting the content of Wallace's article is helpful to the discussion. I was planning on taking some courses this fall I am able to take classes at multiple universities , but the only university within range just dropped their classics department, including the Greek classes.
The absence of particles, except kai, demonstrates this independence from the Septuagint. These include Bishop Victor of Capua in A. Second, the text of 1 Corinthians 15 is substantially stable. Finally he is made, in retrospect, the recipient of new angelic revelations like those of the Prophet himself, taking down the dictation of the Mushaf Fatima, one of the Shi'ite holy books. Roloff, Apostolat-Verkündigung-Kirche Gütersloh, 1965 , 92.
Other scholars including Price agree. Conclusion We analyzed four key questions relating to the material in verses 1-11. With Walker Proof, 615 , however, I believe the prima facie likelihood is that many interpolations occurred in those early days, on analogy with the subsequent, traceable textual tradition, as well as with the cases of other interpolated, expanded, and redacted canonical and non-canonical texts Munro, 432. The reference to the 500 unnamed witnesses certainly implies, as Sider argues, that the list is an apologetical device, especially with the note of most of the crowd still being available for corroboration. The verses were added, without Paul's knowledge, shortly after the letter was written.
Gerhardsson, Memory and Manuscript 1961 , p. If this is the case, however, when he turns to the topic of the resurrection in chapter 15, why would he risk losing all he has thus far built by introducing a formula which draws special attention to the primacy of Cephas as the first witness of the resurrection? Jesus said to them: Wherever you are, you are to go to James the righteous, for whose sake heaven and earth came into being. It is not uncommon for Paul to refer to himself or his apostolic role as that of a slave of Christ. The point would be that the Risen Christ appeared first to James, and only then to the apostles, including Peter. The note of James' resurrection vision carries no hint of anything exceptional, as might be expected if the appearance had turned an enemy into a friend, the like of which is noted in the case of Paul in v.
To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A Psalm of David. And it was this scribe, I suggest, who also interpolated the reference to the 500 brethren, a clearly apologetic intrusion, as we have seen. I have argued not for direct dependence but for relatedness of themes and concerns with later polemics and traditions on display in works like the Gospel of the Hebrews, the Epistle of Peter to James, and Luke-Acts. This testimony to the Resurrection is very remarkable, because: 1. On the contrary, I worked harder than any of them—though it was not I, but the grace of God that is with me.
Third, though stylistic and linguistic differences, often a sign of interpolation, appear in the text, they are not pivotal for my argument, since they could just as easily denote pre-Pauline tradition taken over by the apostle. The body that is sown is perishable, it is raised imperishable; 43 it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 44 it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. In other words, any clever connect-the-dots solution is preferable to admitting that the text in question is an interpolation. What you sow does not come to life unless it dies. Surely it would have been much more natural for Paul to pass over this inconvenient fact in silence. Further, if Christ has not been raised up, your faith is useless; you remain in your sins. He and the hated Gnostics alike claimed the whole apostolic college.
Only the final stage is to be attributed to Paul. But the focus on community leaders seems to me to demand Wilckens's view. Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God… Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remember me in all things, and keep the ordinances, as I delivered them to you… Son of man, I have made thee a watchman unto the house of Israel: therefore hear the word at my mouth, and give them warning from me. In these cases the reinforcer traced over only one of the duplicates, so the other reveals the original ink. In the first place, I do not believe that one could have attempted in the earliest times to set James up as the first witness of the resurrection in place of Peter. In 2009, Payne published his book which contains his most current thoughts and most compelling arguments for 1 Corinthians 14:34-35 to be considered an interpolation, along with his views on all of the other passages dealing with gender roles in the Paul's letters.
Only the final stage is to be attributed to Paul. If the dead are not raised at all, why are people baptized for them? Why would anyone have made such an interpolation? But last of all he appeared also to me as if to one born prematurely. Stand firm in the faith. Furthermore, in 1 Cor 15:3 it uses the word for the teaching of rabbinical tradition Paul was taught this , but Paul consistently says in Galatians that what he teaches did not come from any man. And thus the apologetical strategy is to disallow any argument that cannot fully prove the secondary character of a piece of text.
Craigs argues that the creed has its basis in Jerusalem, but it was the developed, Hellenized form that Paul received in Damascus. New York: Paulist Press, 1978 , 112. Higgins Philadelphia: Westminster, 1956 , 68. I took a Classical Greek course for a semester to give myself a background. Since surviving manuscripts preserve textual variants in the vast majority of the original ink color distigme locations in Codex Vaticanus, these distigmai provide a statistical basis for concluding that the majority of the significant variants available to the scribe of Vaticanus have survived in extant manuscripts. In fact, would it not be far more natural to suppose that if any connection existed between the two passages, the relation must be just the opposite? Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast, immovable, always having plenty to do in the work of the Lord, knowing that your labor is not in vain in connection with the Lord. Cullmann had suggested that there was no real conflict between the two passages since the Risen Christ both was the ultimate origin of the traditional material and remained active within it as it was transmitted.
Creedal Nature When scholars analyze 1 Corinthians 15:1-11 they note that it has a creedal nature. Perhaps the earliest creedal material that we have is found in 1 Corinthians 15. On the other hand, seeing that the whole is post-Pauline, v. Some might challenge my ascription of the 500 brethren note to a later period in view of the challenge to the reader to confirm the testimony of the 500 for himself. Now I remind you, brothers, of the good news that I declared to you, which you also accepted, and for which you have taken your stand. The occasion which caused the Apostle to dwell at such length and with such emphasis on this subject was the denial of the resurrection by some members of the Corinthian Church. Against Wilckens, Kramer, followed by Conzelmann, rejects such a usage as having no form-critical parallel.